The carbon footprint of bread

Bread may not be as environmentally friendly as we might like.

World agricultural production contributes 13.5 per cent of total greenhouse gas emissions – or as much as is emitted by the world’s transportation sector.

Now, Norwegian researchers have measured the overall environmental impact of Norwegian food – from farm to fork – and calculated that the production of one kilogram of bread results in the production of just under one CO2 equivalent when the whole process is taken into account, from the production of agricultural machinery, buildings and manure, through field work and production, packaging and distribution in stores.

The study also shows that transport accounts for not more than
two per cent of emissions, according to an article published on, an online news service that features Norwegian research news.

Bioforsk, the Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, led the
project, which was conducted in cooperation with NTNU and SIK – the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology.