It sounds like a simple question: How many countries are there in Europe? However, the answer is more complicated than you might think.
War and conflicts
Never before have more people been displaced. How should schools receive youth with a refugee background whose experience is that their opinion has no value?
An explosion can hurtle fragments and debris at enormous velocities so they strike the surroundings. Then comes the shock wave. It’s a scary combination.
The Norwegian school year start up again after another pandemic crisis year and with the ongoing war in Ukraine. Pupils’ experiences may be different, but all children are affected by these crises, some many years later.
This is how the democratic process is described in several of the former Soviet states that won their freedom starting in the 1990s. Now researchers want to propose new ways of building democracy.
Ukraine is certainly putting pressure on Russia in the war. How can this be? And is this good news against an authoritarian regime with atomic weapons?
Some types of terrorist acts affect people much more than others. Islamist violence apparently produces the strongest counter-reactions.
Speedy work carried out for free in Norway resulted in an IT system that protects refugees against human traffickers at the Polish-Ukrainian border. This type of aid work may become financially self-supporting.
The war in and over Ukraine has already lasted nearly two months. There is little reason to assume that it will be over anytime soon.
Countries arise, change and disappear. An ERC Grant of €2 million will illustrate how old states affect conflicts and democracy today.
Political power adjustments in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union rank among the deepest causes of the war. But balance of power alone does not explain the crisis and war.
The United States received a lot of criticism when NATO Allies withdrew from Afghanistan. But the United States almost never pulls all its military out of a country completely. Maybe not often enough.
The war in Ukraine is a disaster foretold. The warnings have come from Russia – and they have been coming for at least 15 years and they have been consistent. But they have been ignored by the outside world. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine represents the loser’s ultimate revenge.
France covered up the consequences of their nuclear tests in the Pacific. As many as 110 000 people may have been exposed to radioactive fallout above the assumed safe levels.
Everyone believes in at least one conspiracy theory, according to conspiracy researchers. Conspiracy theories aren’t reserved for angry Republicans in the United States. Do you think Biden stole the election?
In the aftermath of a crisis, it is always easy to see how the crisis could have been better handled, and then we put new measures into place. But do these measures set us up to solve the next crisis – the one we don’t yet know about?
Eighty years have passed since the end of the Finnish Winter War. “The war is my family’s history too,” Soilikki Vettenranta writes in this Viewpoint article.
Heart-breaking images of children in refugee camps in Greece and Syria remind us of how war is driving children to flee their homes. Minors are being sent off to foreign countries. But this also happened in Norway’s neighbouring country of Finland during World War II.
Children’s health declines the longer they live in refugee camps. Many adults are also struggling, with seven out of ten feeling like they have no future.
War veterans who were not personally in life-threatening danger have more psychological problems than those who were injured by gunfire. This finding comes from a study that surveyed veterans after their return from Afghanistan.
Sexual violence in war is attracting more attention thanks to the 2018 Nobel Peace Prize. But nothing suggests that the abuse is lessening.
Facebook is an important source of not only genuine, but also fake news. But now a new tool has been developed to expose the fakers.