Nearly 40 million people were living with HIV in 2017, the UN says, with just over half taking antiretroviral therapy. These drugs have cut AIDS-related deaths by more than half since the 2004 peak, but the disease cannot be cured. A new mechanism uncovered by a Norwegian research group could improve the chances of developing one.
Bacteria and viruses
Our immune systems are working overtime this time of year. Knowing that a bunch of dedicated immune cells are willing to explode themselves to inform other cells about the danger may offer a bit of consolation.
Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs work against a range of viral diseases, but developing them can be costly and time consuming. Testing existing anti-viral drugs for their ability to combat multiple viral infections can help.
Being overweight, little physical activity and smoking increase our vulnerability for severe bloodstream infections. These factors also increase mortality.
The tuberculosis vaccine only works for children. BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) doesn’t protect you as an adult. Now we know more about how the bacterium avoids being detected.
The plague that is believed to have caused the Black Death still occasionally ravages populations, albeit to a much smaller extent than before. Now we know more about how the bacteria attack us.
Allergies to antibiotics are the commonest form of medication allergies and, in the worst cases, can result in anaphylaxis and death. SINTEF is participating in the development of a new allergy test that will make it easier to provide patients with safe and correct treatments.
An enzyme found in many bacteria, including the bacterium that gives us strep throat, has given mankind a cheap and effective tool with which to edit our own genes. This technology, called CRISPR, is also being used to understand how the immune system responds to a viral attack.
Forty-three per cent of children at two daycare centres researchers studied had at least one virus in their respiratory tract.
Sepsis, commonly called blood poisoning, is a common affliction that can affect people of all ages. A series of simple measures tested at a Norwegian hospital can make a difference in successfully treating sepsis.